No you cannot, if you are using the Camel error handler.
However if your point of entry is by nature redeliverable, then that is possible. For example a file input, will be able to redeliver, simply just by picking up the file again.
The same for JMS. You can configure ActiveMQ to perform redeliveries, if you enable transacted JMS. By default ActiveMQ will perform up till 6 redelivery attempts, before the message is moved to a dead letter queue.